IBS Manufacturer in Malaysia: Historical Chronology of Housing Project by Zulkefli Ismail (PhD candidate IIUM)
IBS in Malaysia has begun in early 1960’s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries and evaluate their housing development program (Thanoon et. al. 2003).
After their successful visit in 1964, the government had started first project on IBS aims to speed up the delivery time and built affordable and quality houses. About 22.7 acres of land along Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur was dedicated to the project comprising seven blocks of 17 storeys flat there are 3000 units of low-cost flat and 40 shops lot. This project was awarded to JV Gammon and Larsen & Nielsen using Danish System of large panel of prefabricated system. The project was completed within 27 months from 1966 to 1969 including the time taken in the construction of the RM 2.5 million casting yard at Jalan Damansara (CIDB, 2003; CIDB, 2006 and Thanoon et al, 2003).
In 1968, the second housing project initiated by the government of Malaysia, the project comprising a 6 block of 17 storey flat and 3 blocks of 18 storey flat at Jalan Rifle Range, Penang. The project was awarded to Hochtief and Chee Seng using French Estoit System (Din, 1984; CIDB, 2003 and Sarja, 1998).
Another earliest IBS project was at Taman Tun Sardon, Penang in 1978 (1,000 units of five-storey walk up flat). IBS precast component and system in the project was designed by British Research Establishment (BRE) for low cost housing in tropical countries. Nonetheless, the building design was very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the need of wet toilet and bathroom (Rahman and Omar, 2006).
Between 1981 and 1993, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor (PKNS) a state government development agency acquired precast concrete technology from Praton Haus International based on Germany to build low cost house and high cost bungalow in Selangor (CIDB, 2003). PKNS Praton Haus Berhad that was formed in 1981 had introduced two (2) types of construction system, large panel systems and skeleton systems. All these large panel systems were produced in the mobile factory at Shah Alam. In 1991, the company was fully owned by PKNS and the name was changed to PKNS Engineering & Construction Berhad (PECB). The precast concrete and box systems have been adopted by PECB are as follows; Tilt Up System – Australia; MyPro System – Malaysia; O-Stable System – Malaysia (Patented by Baktian Sdn. Bhd.); HC Precast System – Malaysia (Patented by HC Precast System Sdn. Bhd.)
Other large panel system in Malaysia include Taisei Marubeni System (Japan) which large panel are cast in factory using tilt-up system where one panel forms the base for next panel cast. Taisei-Setia Sdn Bhd developed 4,880 unit dwellings using this system in Shah Alam during 1980s. The other is Ingeback System (Sweden) which is Swedish system using large panels in vertical battery mould and tilt-up table mould. IBS was implemented in Taman Maluri, Pandan Jaya and Wangsa Maju using metal-formwork system (Sarja, 1998).
Although incorporated in 1974 as a construction company, the SP Setia story really began in 1996 when they refocused their core business to property development. Setia Precast Sdn Bhd, a wholly owned subsidiary of SP Setia Bhd has established a firm reputation as Malaysia’s leading IBS specialist in precast technology for high-rise residential apartment. In the last decade, they had successfully constructed more than 10,000 units of residential apartments up to 18 storeys in Ampang, Puchong, Sungai Petani and Putrajaya (CIDB, 2006).
In 1999, the Public Works Department (PWD) had designed the 5-storey block of quarters for Judicial and Legal Training Institute at Bangi. The first storey was built using cast in-situ concrete beams and columns with the upper 4 storeys built with precast concrete wall system. The precast component was supplied by Norwest Holding Sdn. Bhd. and Associated Structural Concrete Sdn. Bhd. (CIDB, 2006).
In the year 2000 and 2004, the Finish originated company, Eastern Pretech (M) Sdn. Bhd. had supplied prefabricated components such as hollow core slabs, precast planks, precast balcony, precast beams, precast columns, precast staircase elements, precast parapet walls and load bearing walls for residential projects of townhouses and apartments at Cyberjaya and Seremban (CIDB, 2006).
Between 1998 and 2002, Encorp Berhad and Leighton introduced precast concrete walls and precast planks in the development of 10,000 units of teachers’ quarters on 107 sites throughout Malaysia. A total of 4,700 units of the teachers’ quarters were completed by Sunway Precast Industries Sdn. Bhd. and the remaining units were completed by Leighton and Hume Industries Sdn. Bhd. The project comprised low-rise (4 and 5-storey high) apartment complexes was designed by NRY Architects Sdn. Bhd. Each apartment unit has 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, a living room, a dining room, a balcony and a courtyard (CIDB, 2006).
In 2004, the PWD have also embarked on the new design of government quarters using the IBS system. The Senawang Police Quarters is one of the pilot projects that employed this new design. In this project, precast concrete wall panels were completed by Sunway Precast Industries Sdn. Bhd. (CIDB, 2006).
Starting on 2006, O-Stable Panel Sdn. Bhd. has been widely used as IBS system in double storey bungalow and terrace houses at Selangor and Putrajaya. The prefabricated component was supplied for Putra Perdana Construction Sdn. Bhd. for bungalow houses at Putrajaya, and PKNS and Baktian Sdn. Bhd. for houses in Selangor (CIDB, 2006).
Today, the use of IBS as a method of construction in Malaysia is evolving. Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert from Australia, Netherlands, United State and Japan to offer precast solution to their project (CIDB, 2003). In addition, 131 manufacture registered with CIDB to date with 200 IBS products available in the market (CIDB Orange Book Volume 3). Over 800 registered IBS contractor available in 2007 (CIDB Orange Book Volume 1).