1. Benchmarking Wheel 1 (Camp, 1998) – One of the classic and fundamental model proposed in the literature. It consist 5-Phase strategies which are determine what to benchmark, form benchmarking team, identify benchmarking partner, collect and analyze information and take action. It is a continues process of improvement and learning
2. 6-steps Benchmarking (Adam & Vanderwater, 1998) – This model is generated from Benchmarking Wheel (Camp, 1998) but adding one preliminary step which is in-depth searching in one own organization to identify what performance to be improved.
3. Xerox Model (compiled by Zairi & Whymark, 2000) – This model is compiled from successful Benchmarking study conducted by Xerox Corporation in late 1990s. It consist 5 steps which are planning, analysis, integration, action and maturity.
4. National Productivity Corporation (NPC, 2007) – The Model is developed by National Productivity Corporation (NPC) of Malaysia based on combination of several successful model in the world. The model is also widely adopted in other country such as Taiwan and Thailand. It consist 3-Phase (Benchmark, Best Practice and Improvement) and 12 steps. It supported by an online e-benchmark system in 2007.
5. Benchmarking Wheel 2 (Andersen & Pettersen, 1996) – This model is one of basic yet established model used by several corporate organizations in Europe and United State. It consists 6 generic steps which are plan, find, collect, analyze and improve.
6. Reading Benchmarking Model (Granett & Pickrell, 2000) – One of the model use and proposed for the construction industry aim to improve construction quality and productivity. It comprise 7-steps; the need of change, decision to benchmark, identify what to benchmark, design benchmark study, data collection and analysis, implementation and feedback